From the perspectives of learning theories, the paper discusses the roles of testing and assessment in meeting real academic goals in standards-based reform. It argues that performance-based alternative assessment, which is based on modern constructivists' view of learning, has advantages over high-stakes standardized testing which can be traced back to traditional theory of behaviorism. To help teachers design an appropriate alternative assessment, the paper offers suggestions on what teachers should know and be able to do according to the standards. The paper concludes that teachers should create a curriculum based on dynamic, performance-based assessment to assess students armed with thinking skills for the 21st century.
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/qiuyun_lin/18/