Acute hyperglycemia in non-diabetic subjects can impair vascularendothelial function, causing decreased endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) release and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), such assuperoxide and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Hyperglycemia may induce mitochondrial dysfunction leading to ROS production and exacerbation of vascular endothelial dysfunction. We investigated whether mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants mitigate acute hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and reduced blood NO. To test this hypothesis, blood NO or H2O2 levels were measured simultaneously using NO or H2O2 microsensors (100 µm) which were placed into the femoral veins of anesthesized male Sprague-Dawley rats. Acute hyperglycemia was induced by infusion 20% D-glucose intravenously with or without mitochondria-targeted antioxidants (mitoquinone: mitoQ, MW=1714 g/mol, 2.3 mg/Kg; SS-31: (D-Arg)-Dmt-Lys-Phe-Amide, MW=640g/mol, 2.7 mg/Kg) for 3 hours. We found that acute hyperglycemia (200 mg/dL) significantly increased blood H2O2 by 3.0±0.5 M (n=7) and reduced blood NO by 68.0±13.5 nM (n=9) compared to the saline group at end of infusion (both p<0.05). MitoQ significantly attenuated hyperglycemia– induced H2O2 levels by 2.5±0.2 M (n=7) and increased blood NO levels by 59.3±9.7 nM (n=5) (both p<0.05 compared to hyperglycemia). Similarly, SS-31 significantly reduced hyperglycemia-induced blood H2O2 level by 4.0±0.6 M (n=5) and enhanced blood NO levels by 52.8±7.7 nM (n=6) at end of infusion (both p<0.05 compared to hyperglycemia). In summary, acute hyperglycemia induces mitochondria-derived ROS which in turn contribute to vascular endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, mitochondria-targeted antioxidants are useful to attenuate acute hyperglycemia-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress.
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/qian_chen/57/