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Contribution to Book
The Innovation System and Innovation Policy in the United States
Competing for Global Innovation Leadership: Innovation Systems and Policies in the USA, EU and Asia (2010)
  • Philip Shapira
  • Jan Youtie
Abstract
The US has a highly decentralized and diverse innovation system, involving multiple actors, including branches of federal and state governments, public agencies, universi-ties, the private sector, and non-profit and intermediary organizations. The system combines a high-level of R&D (with basic research sponsored particularly by federal government agencies) and a strong orientation towards applications and the market. This chapter provides an overview of the US innovation system and policy including a discussion of the components and participants involved in the US innovation system and its trends in innovation governance. The focus of this chapter is primarily on innovation policies with a commercial orientation. Key aspects of US innovation policies are highlighted, beginning with a brief review of selected framework and indirect policies that influence innovation. Consideration is then given to direct innovation policies and policies to foster capabilities for innovation in the US. Regional initiatives, new national coordinated policy efforts, and systems for assessment and evaluation are also dis-cussed.
Keywords
  • innovation system,
  • innovation policy,
  • United States
Publication Date
2010
Editor
Rainer Frietsch and Margot Schüller
Publisher
Fraunhofer Verlag
ISBN
978-3-8396-0114-3
Publisher Statement
The downloadable document is a pre-print of a chapter published in Rainer Frietsch and Margot Schüller (editors), Competing for Global Innovation Leadership: Innovation Systems and Policies in the USA, EU and Asia (Fraunhofer Verlag, 2010). Select this link for further details, including purchasing options.
Citation Information
Philip Shapira and Jan Youtie. "The Innovation System and Innovation Policy in the United States." In: Competing for Global Innovation Leadership: Innovation Systems and Policies in the USA, EU and Asia. Edited by: Rainer Frietsch and Margot Schüller. Stuttgart: Fraunhofer Verlag, 2010. 5-29.