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John Milton's Epic Invocations: Converting the Muse
  • Philip Edward Phillips, Middle Tennessee State University
A crisis over the function and identity of the Muse occurred in seventeenth-century religious poetry: How could Christian writers use a pagan device? Using rhetorical analysis, Phillips examines epic invocations in order to show how this crisis was eventually reconciled in the works of John Milton. While predecessors such as Abraham Cowley and Guillaume du Bartas either rejected the pagan Muses outright or attempted to Christianize them, Milton invoked the inspirational power of the Muses throughout his poetic career. In Paradise Lost, Milton confronts the tension between his Muse's «name» and «meaning». While never fully rejecting the Muse's pagan past, Milton's four proems (PL I, III, VII, and IX) increasingly emphasize the muse's Christian «meaning» over her pagan «name». Ultimately, Milton's syncretic blending of pagan and Christian conventions restores vitality and resonance to the literary trope of the muse.
  • John Milton,
  • Abraham Cowley,
  • Christianity and literature,
  • epic poetry,
  • classical influences in English literature,
  • Muses in literature,
  • invocation in literature,
  • paganism in literature,
  • seventeenth-century poetry
Publication Date
Peter Lang
Renaissance and Baroque Texts and Studies
Citation Information
Philip Edward Phillips. John Milton's Epic Invocations: Converting the Muse. New YorkVol. 26 (2000)
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