Lithic tools used for fish processing in North America range from hafted lanceolate bifaces and microlithic blades to handheld lunate tools. Despite use wear and residue analysis, archaeologists still lack diagnostic means to identify archaeological fish processing tools at larger scales, resulting in a dearth of knowledge about past fishing behavior. This paper describes and predicts variability in tool shape using ethnographic fish processing data and functional morphology of tabular quartzite tools from Kettle Falls, a major Columbia River salmon fishery. Gender-specific organization of labor during intensive fish harvest and technological behavior associated with large-scale processing practiced by aquatic-focused foragers are featured. A model for fishing tool use is evaluated using data from the Kettle Falls lithic collection. The paper describes expectations for diagnostic characteristics of fish processing tools at smaller organizational scales expected in the Rockies and discusses the increase in Native American fishing due to resource pressures from Euro-American incursions.
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/pei-lin_yu/22/