Skip to main content
The incidence and aetiology of hospitalised community-acquired pneumonia among Vietnamese adults: a prospective surveillance in Central Vietnam
Wayne State University Associated BioMed Central Scholarship
  • Kensuke Takahashi, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University
  • Motoi Suzuki, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University
  • Le Minh, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University
  • Nguyen Anh, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology
  • Luu Thi Huong, Khanh Hoa General Hospital
  • Tran Vo Son, Khanh Hoa General Hospital
  • Phan Long, Khanh Hoa General Hospital
  • Nguyen Thi Ai, Khanh Hoa General Hospital
  • Le Tho, Khanh Hoa General Hospital
  • Konosuke Morimoto, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University
  • Paul E Kilgore, Wayne State University
  • Dang Anh, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology
  • Koya Ariyoshi, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University
  • Lay Yoshida, Institute of Tropical Medicine
Document Type
Publication Date
Abstract Background Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) including Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common infectious disease that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The patterns of aetiological pathogens differ by region and country. Special attention must be paid to CAP in Southeast Asia (SEA), a region facing rapid demographic transition. Estimates burden and aetiological patterns of CAP are essential for the clinical and public health management. The purposes of the study are to determine the incidence, aetiological pathogens, clinical pictures and risk factors of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in the Vietnamese adult population. Methods A prospective surveillance for hospitalised adult CAP was conducted in Khanh Hoa Province, Central Vietnam. All adults aged ≥15 years with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) admitted to a provincial hospital from September 2009 to August 2010 were enrolled in the study. Patients were classified into CAP and non-pneumonic LRTI (NPLRTI) according to the radiological findings. Bacterial pathogens were identified from sputum samples by the conventional culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis; 13 respiratory viruses were identified from nasopharyngeal specimens by PCR. Results Of all 367 LRTI episodes examined, 174 (47%) were CAP. Older age, the presence of underlying respiratory conditions, and higher index score of smoking were associated with CAP. The one-year estimated incidence of hospitalised adult CAP in our study population was 0.81 per 1,000 person years. The incidence increased considerably with age and was highest among the elderly. The case fatality proportion of hospitalised CAP patients was 9.8%. Among 286 sputum samples tested for bacterial PCR, 79 (28%) were positive for H. influenzae, and 65 (23%) were positive for S. pneumoniae. Among 357 samples tested for viral PCR, 73 (21%) were positive for respiratory viruses; influenza A (n = 32, 9%) was the most common. Conclusions The current adult CAP incidence in Vietnam was relatively low; this result was mainly attributed to the young age of our study population.
Citation Information
Takahashi et al.: The incidence and aetiology of hospitalised community-acquired pneumonia among Vietnamese adults: a prospective surveillance in Central Vietnam. BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:296. 21. 20. Cherian T, Mulholland EK, Carlin JB, Ostensen H, Amin R, De CM, Greenberg D, Lagos R, Lucero M, Madhi SA, Brien KLO, Obaro S, Steinhoff MC, Working R: Standardized interpretation of paediatric chest radiographs for the diagnosis of pneumonia in epidemiological studies. Bull World Health Organ 2005, 83:353–359. Lim WS: Defining community acquired pneumonia severity on presentation to hospital: an international derivation and validation study. Thorax 2003, 58:377–382. Lay-Myint Y, Motoi S, Nguyen Hien A, Le Nhat M, Vu Dinh T, Hiroshi Y, Wolf-Peter S, Nguyen Thi Thuy A, Le Huu T, Konosuke M, Hiroyuki M, Dang Duc A, Koya A: Respiratory Syncytial Virus, its Co-infection and Paediatric Lower Respiratory Infections. Euro Resp J. in press. 22. 23. Hien TT, Boni MF, Bryant JE, Ngan TT, Wolbers M, Nguyen TD, Truong NT, Dung NT, Ha DQ, Hien VM, Thanh TT, Nhu LNT, Uyen LTT, Nhien PT, Chinh NT, Chau NVV, Farrar J, Van Doorn HR: Early pandemic influenza (2009 H1N1) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: a clinical virological and epidemiological analysis. PLoS Med 2010, 7:e1000277. 24. Watt JP, Moïsi JC, Donaldson RL A, Reid R, Ferro S, Whitney CG, Santosham M, 25. 26. O’Brien KL: Measuring the incidence of adult community-acquired pneumonia in a Native American community. Epidemiol Infect 2010, 138:1146–1154. Schnoor M, Hedicke J, Dalhoff K, Raspe H, Schäfer T: Approaches to estimate the population-based incidence of community acquired pneumonia. J Infect 2007, 55:233–239. Jokinen C, Heiskanen L, Juvonen H, Kallinen S, Karkola K, Korppi M, Kurki S, Rönnberg PR, Seppä A, Soimakallio S: Incidence of community-acquired pneumonia in the population of four municipalities in eastern Finland. Am J Epidemiol 1993, 137:977–988. 27. Capelastegui A, España PP, Bilbao A, Gamazo J, Medel F, Salgado J, Gorostiaga I, Esteban C, Altube L, Gorordo I, Quintana JM: Study of community-acquired pneumonia: incidence, patterns of care, and outcomes in primary and hospital care. J Infect 2010, 61:364–371. 28. Almirall J, Boixeda R, Bolíbar I, Bassa J, Sauca G, Vidal J, Serra-Prat M, Balanzó X: Differences in the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia according to site of care: a population-based study. Respir Med 2007, 101:2168–2175.