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Telepresence and Exemplification: Does Spatial Presence Impact Sleeper Effects?
Communication Research Reports (2012)
  • David Westerman, North Dakota State University
  • Patric R Spence, University of Kentukcy
  • Kenneth Lachlan, University of Connecticut
Exemplification theory (Zillmann, 1999, 2002; Zillmann & Brosius, 2000) suggests exemplar representations in media content may cause people to make overestimated judgments about observed phenomena. Other exemplification research also notes the possibility of a sleeper effect (Gibson & Zillmann, 1994). One hundred forty-seven participants viewed a news story about a terrorist attack in Iraq in one of five conditions meant to manipulate aspects of telepresence and a sleeper effect. Data were not consistent with predictions related to telepresence and sleeper effects. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
  • exemplification,
  • risk communication,
  • crisis communication,
  • sleeper effects,
  • telepresence
Publication Date
Citation Information
David Westerman, Patric R Spence and Kenneth Lachlan. "Telepresence and Exemplification: Does Spatial Presence Impact Sleeper Effects?" Communication Research Reports Vol. 29 (2012) p. 299 - 309
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