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Responsibility and Active Participation of Students
Paper Help (2022)
  • Elissa Smart, Bryant University
Whether it is active learning or classroom participation, every teacher desires to want to motivate their students to participate and to nurture many involved students. The traditional science lecture, (which involves an instructor delivering a cautiously crafted monolog to a large number of students who are passively receiving the information), has been the common mode of instruction for centuries. However, recent evidence on the learning and teaching science indicates that learner-centered, responsible and active teaching strategies are more effective learning tools compared to the traditional lectures. The most important value of having students actively participate in the learning increases their retention and understanding of the course material. As they participate in the learning process, the can experiment with ideas, develop concepts, provide paper writing help to each other, and integrate concepts into systems. In this paper, activities that can promote responsibility and active participation of students are described.
These activities to be described will be useful in mathematics and science class for undergraduate students. Also, students develop critical thinking which let them filter information and avoid taking wrong decisions, internet or paperhelp scam. It is assumed that the classroom has about 30 students taking the course and is from different cultures and backgrounds. It is a class that contains different kinds of students, but the most important thing is to have activities that encourage responsibility and active learning for high achievement. The school type can be any because these activities and strategies are entirely for encouraging participation and active learning, especially during the class hours. Below are the strategies that can help to ensure responsibility and active participation of the students in the learning process.

1. Jigsaw
In the jigsaw approach, a class is divided into several teams of students depending on the size. Each team is given a slightly different but well-defined task that embodies clear instructions that each team member is required to do to represent the group once the work is completed. Each team then works together on the task to develop expertise in that specific area. During the entire process, the instructor avails himself/herself for any inquiries and guidance as the groups attempt to learn their material. After the groups complete their work, they are rearranged to create new groups that contain one member from each initial group. Each student within the new groups has some expertise and is required to teach the information learned from the original group and learn the information from the other members. This jigsaw classroom is an activity that is used as a cooperative and cooperative learning, and it fits any level of education (Aronson, 2011).
Many benefits can accrue from this kind of learning strategy. In this exercise, the teacher is the one who structures the activity with thoughtful prompts and sometimes provides the appropriate resources, but the learners take responsibility for gaining and conveying new knowledge (Mengduo & Xiaoling, 2010). The strategy makes each student be both an instructor and a careful listener as the exercise takes place, yet no one student should do the front lines digging on every topic. The exercise also enables all the students in the classroom to fully participate and effectively interact with their peers. The rearrangement inherent in this strategy also promotes the interactions with other learners that otherwise a student would not have encountered and it provides a series of physical activities that help maintain attention amongst the students (Aronson, 2011).
2. Short Quizzes
In this kind of activity, the instructor poses a question with a single correct answer to the whole class and requires all the students to respond. In this case, each student is required to work independently, but it can as well be adapted to team activities like in the case of Think-Pair.Share (to be discussed later). Quizzing during the class is a good method that can help in accomplishing several goals. For one, the quiz questions stimulate thought during the lecture causing the learners to think actively concerning the material at hand as they are also pulled out of passive and receptive mode to a more engaging and contemplative mode. The quizzes based on the assigned reading or ideas from the previous lecturers are also useful in ensuring that the students adequately prepare for the lesson by doing their reading or reviewing their notes (Lom, 2012). These quizzes thirdly, test the students’ understanding during a lecture and provide real-time feedback to the students and instructor.
3. Think-Pair-Share
In the Think-Pair-Share strategy, the teacher poses a question or a prompt to the entire class and requires all the learners to think independently about their responses in silence (and perhaps jot their notes) (Kothiyal et al., 2013). After about two minutes (the duration depends on the question/prompt complexity), the instructor pairs up each student with his/her nearby or assigned student. In these pairs (can also be trios) the students compare their opinions. Based on the question/prompt, the instructor may direct the pairs to reach an agreement, pick the most convincing answer, generate several responses, etc. After the students discuss in pairs, the instructor then draws their attention and asks each pair to share their answers or responses to the entire class. The instructor can employ different techniques in selecting the pairs, for instance by cold calling, asking for volunteers, navigating the room, or requesting diverse responses.
This approach has also its benefits when employed in a classroom setting. For one, the time set aside to think quietly gives all the students an opportunity to think about the problem posed. It thus reduces the chances of many students skipping thinking about an answer as is the case with the traditional way of asking questions and having students raise their hands to give a response. Similarly, dedicating time for quiet thinking allows the learners who need more time to organize their thoughts (or gather confidence) a chance of giving their thoughts in the discussion (Kaddoura, 2013). This technique not only encourages all students to think, but it also allows all of them to talk as they share their opinions. Therefore, students experience the benefits of explaining their thoughts on the prompt to a peer, vet their responses, and revise. Also, with every student talking, the “pairing” phase brings a burst of activity into the class. The students who may fear to talk in front of the full class actively articulate their thoughts to their peers (Kaddoura, 2013).
4. Minute Papers
In the case of Minute Papers, the instructor takes a few minutes of the class to ask students to write quick responses to some question based on the day’s lecture. The activity usually takes place at the end of the class, and the students turn in their responses as they exit. Minute Papers allow the learners to review the day’s lecture before they exit the classroom. This technique has been widely applied in both small and large lecture courses (Stead, 2005). As a short writing exercise, the activity provides the teachers and learners a quick summary of what was learned during the lesson just ended. It also serves as a way of identifying points of confusion that may not easily be observable.
The Minute Papers technique also has some benefits. The technique prompts the learners to assess the day’s lesson before they leave the classroom. It prompts them to identify the key points and issues as a regular exercise. Besides the well-known benefits of repetition, summary, and reviewing of information which is effective learning components, Minute Papers decrease the impersonal and unidirectional nature of the traditional lecture courses (Lom, 2012). Through the technique, all students have a vital opportunity to raise questions on the areas they may not have grasped properly. Minute Papers also give teachers valuable glimpses into how their students experienced the lesson, revealing that ideas the teacher intended as clear or imperative might have been taken to be confusing or trivial by the learners (Park, Ramirez, & Beilock, 2014). Therefore the instructor can leverage the feedback from Minute Papers to evaluate the effectiveness of his/her lecture and identify areas that s/he should clarify in the next class.
Active learning seeks to engage more students in effective learning. Additionally, it positively impacts the students’ attitude toward self and peers in the course of learning. It helps to build a social group within the class where every student feels free to share their ideas and make inquiries without any fear of intimidation. The paper has helped to discuss four activities that can be very useful in promoting responsibility and encouraging active participation of all the students. If these activities are employed in the class set of any kind, there is confidence that’s they will bring forth useful fruits to both the teachers and students.
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Elissa Smart. "Responsibility and Active Participation of Students" Paper Help (2022)
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