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Structure and Function of Starch and Resistant Starch from Corn with Different Doses of Mutant Amylose-Extender and Floury-1 Alleles
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
  • Ni Yao, Iowa State University
  • Alix V. Paez, Genetic Enterprises International
  • Pamela J. White, Iowa State University
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Four corn types with different doses of mutant amylose-extender (ae) and floury-1 (fl1) alleles, in the endosperm, including no. 1, aeaeae; no. 2, fl1fl1fl1; no. 3, aeaefl1; and no. 4,fl1fl1ae, were developed for use in making Hispanic food products with high resistant starch (RS) content. The RS percentages in the native starch (NS) of 1−4 were 55.2, 1.1, 5.7, and 1.1%, respectively. All NS were evaluated for pasting properties with a rapid viscoanalyzer (RVA) and for thermal properties with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). NS 1 had a low peak viscosity (PV) caused by incomplete gelatinization, whereas NS 3 had the greatest PV and breakdown of all four starch types. On the DSC, NS 2 had the lowest onset temperature and greatest enthalpy. NS 1 and 3 had similar onset and peak temperatures, both higher than those of NS 2 and 4. The gel strength of NS heated with a RVA was evaluated by using a texture analyzer immediately after RVA heating (fresh, RVA-F) and after the gel had been stored at 4 °C for 10 days (retrograded, RVA-R). NS 1 gel was watery and had the lowest strength (30 g) among starch gel types. NS 3 gel, although exhibiting syneresis, had greater gel strength than NS 2 and 4. The structures of the NS, the RS isolated from the NS (RS-NS), the RS isolated from RVA-F (RS-RVA-F), and the RS isolated from RVA-R (RS-RVA-R) were evaluated by using size exclusion chromatography. NS 1 had a greater percentage of amylose (AM) (58.3%) than the other NS (20.4−26.8%). The RS from all NS types (RS-NS) had a lower percentage of amylopectin (AP) and a greater percentage of low molecular weight (MW) AM than was present in the original NS materials. The RS-RVA-R from all starches had no AP or high MW AM. The percentages of longer chain lengths (DP 35−60) of NS were greater in 1 and 3 than in 2 and 4, and the percentages of smaller chain lengths (DP 10−20) were greater in 2 and 4 than in 1 and 3. In general, NS 3 seemed to have inherited some pasting, thermal, and structural characteristics from both NS 1 and 2, but was distinctly different from 4.

Posted with permission from Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57 (2009): 2040–2048, doi:10.1021/jf8033682.

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American Chemical Society
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Citation Information
Ni Yao, Alix V. Paez and Pamela J. White. "Structure and Function of Starch and Resistant Starch from Corn with Different Doses of Mutant Amylose-Extender and Floury-1 Alleles" Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry Vol. 57 Iss. 5 (2009) p. 2040 - 2048
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