This paper addresses policy innovation in international organizations and explains it in terms of four factors: independence of the IO within the international regime of which it is a member; external pressure; the consistency of new issues with organizational goals and procedures; and internal policy advocacy. Internal policy advocacy, not often considered in the development literature, is seen as an intervening variable between the first three factors and the response to innovation. The first section of the paper addresses the conditions under which IOs respond to new issues, using different combinations of these four factors, with examples. The second section focuses on a case study on internal advocacy efforts in the World Bank by a group of staff members to incorporate sociological issues, especially in the area of involuntary resettlement and tribal populations' rights. While external pressure played a large role in putting pressure on the World Bank, these insiders were the ones who introduced the issues in ways that fit the goals and procedures of the World Bank in an otherwise resistant environment and forged links with outside allies, thereby contributing to new policy guidelines, to the hiring of more staff with social science training, and, in general, to the increased legitimacy of these issues in the World Bank.
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/nuket_kardam/7/