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Direct or Indirect Window Access, Task Type, and Performance
Journal of Environmental Psychology
  • Nancy J. Stone, Missouri University of Science and Technology
  • Joanne M. Irvine
Window access, task type, and the room (windowed or windowless) were manipulated to investigate their effects on performance and individuals' perceptions of the task and room. Students (n = 180) performed one of three tasks (filing, computational, creative) in either a windowed or windowless room, and had either a direct or indirect interaction with the window. Contrary to expectation, performance and perceptions were not affected by the interaction of window access, task type, and the room. Also, performance was not higher for those working in a room with a window. A marginal interaction effect (p < 0.10) indicated that the creative task is affected by the type of access. Also, the effects on perceptions of the task and room tend to indicate that windowed rooms do contribute a dynamic environment. Specifically, the windowed room appeared to effect more positive perceptions for the creative task. Interestingly, some positive perceptions about the monotonous task occurred in the windowless room; however, boredom tended to be reduced when one faced the window. Implications of these results and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Psychological Science
Document Type
Article - Journal
Document Version
File Type
© 1994 Academic Press Inc., All rights reserved.
Publication Date
Citation Information
Nancy J. Stone and Joanne M. Irvine. "Direct or Indirect Window Access, Task Type, and Performance" Journal of Environmental Psychology Vol. 14 Iss. 1 (1994) p. 57 - 63 ISSN: 2724944
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