A model anti-cancer/tumor drug cis-diammineplatinum (II) dichloride (cisplatin) was loaded into micro- and nanofibers of cellulose, cellulose acetate (CA) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), using various electrospinning techniques. Single-nozzle electrospinning was used to fabricate neat fibers of each category. Drug loading in cellulose fibers was performed using single-nozzle electrospinning. Encapsulation of cisplatin in CA and PEO-based fibers was performed using coaxial electrospinning. Morphological analysis of the fibers was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The various categories of fibers exhibited diverse morphological features depending on the material compositions and applied process parameters. The drug-loaded cellulose nanofibers showed attached particles on the surface. These particles were composed of both the polymer and the drug. The CA-cisplatin fibers exhibited drug encapsulation within various diverse morphological conformations: hierarchical structures such as straw-sheaf-shaped particles, dendritic branched nanofibers and swollen fibers with large beads. However, in the case of PEO fibers, drug encapsulation was observed inside repeating dumbbell-shaped structures. Morphological development of the fibers and corresponding mode of drug encapsulation were correlated with process parameters such as applied voltage, concentrations and relative feed rates of the solutions and conductivities of the solvents.
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