Objectives: To emphasize the concepts of programmatic research using systematic reviews and cost-justification models applicable to clinical telepharmacy services.
Method: Students’ comprehension of programmatic research as part of experimental studies covered in a research and literature evaluation may be challenging. To emphasize this concept in the a structured course, the implementation of clinical telepharmacy service was chosen. Clinical Telepharmacy pilot study conducted at the College of Pharmacy (SUCOP) has been used to emphasize this concept since 2009. After completion of the pilot study, it was evident that application of cost models to the service will help tie the concept as delivered in the course didactically. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in Pubmed, IPA, CINAHL databases as well as alternate resources to identify applicable cost-justification models for implemented clinical pharmacy services from inception to 2011. Of all studies, three were chosen as a potential cost justification models for clinical telepharmacy services. Factors influencing selection included, but was not limited to the following criteria: type of comparator used: historical control data versus actual control group attributes of the population that was studied, type and description of economic analysis, and type of study. A comprehensive systematic review proposal was written from the selected studies. Excerpts from the proposal were utilized in class to emphasize the concepts of conducting systematic reviews using different active learning techniques. The cost models were used to link the impact of implementation of clinical pharmacy and telepharmacy services to programmatic research. This enhanced students’ understanding of the concepts as evidenced through consecutive assessments, participation, and inquiries. Details of the active learning techniques will be presented at the conference.
Results: This enhanced students’ understanding of the concepts as evidenced through consecutive assessments, class participation, and inquiries. Details of the process and active learning techniques will be presented at the conference.
Implications: The investigators plan to fully incorporate this approach into the didactic course the following year and evaluate students’ perception of the techniques.
- Pharmacy research design,
- systematic reviews,
- cost justification
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/miriam_ansong/20/