HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO): Fine-grained, Global-scale Measurements of Climatically Important Atmospheric Gases and AerosolsPhilosophical Transactions A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences (2011)
The HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) programme has completed three of five planned aircraft transects spanning the Pacific from 85° N to 67° S, with vertical profiles every approximately 2.2° of latitude. Measurements include greenhouse gases, long-lived tracers, reactive species, O2/N2 ratio, black carbon (BC), aerosols and CO2 isotopes. Our goals are to address the problem of determining surface emissions, transport strength and patterns, and removal rates of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols at global scales and to provide strong tests of satellite data and global models. HIPPO data show dense pollution and BC at high altitudes over the Arctic, imprints of large N2O sources from tropical lands and convective storms, sources of pollution and biogenic CH4 in the Arctic, and summertime uptake of CO2 and sources for O2 at high southern latitudes. Global chemical signatures of atmospheric transport are imaged, showing remarkably sharp horizontal gradients at air mass boundaries, weak vertical gradients and inverted profiles (maxima aloft) in both hemispheres. These features challenge satellite algorithms, global models and inversion analyses to derive surface fluxes. HIPPO data can play a crucial role in identifying and resolving questions of global sources, sinks and transport of atmospheric gases and aerosols.
- atmospheric science
Publication DateApril 18, 2011
Citation InformationSteven C. Wofsy, B. C. Daube, R. Jimenez, E. Kort, et al.. "HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO): Fine-grained, Global-scale Measurements of Climatically Important Atmospheric Gases and Aerosols" Philosophical Transactions A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences Vol. 369 Iss. 1943 (2011) p. 2073 - 2086 ISSN: 1364-503X
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/minghui-diao/8/