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The O2/N2 Ratio and CO2 Airborne Southern Ocean Study
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (2018)
  • Britton B. Stephens, National Center for Atmospheric Research
  • Matthew C. Long, National Center for Atmospheric Research
  • Ralph F. Keeling, University of California, San Diego
  • Eric A. Kort, University of Michigan - Ann Arbor
  • Colm Sweeney, University of Colorado Boulder
  • Eric C. Apel, National Center for Atmospheric Research
  • Elliot L. Atlas, University of Miami
  • Stuart P. Beaton, National Center for Atmospheric Research
  • Jonathan D. Bent, University of Colorado Boulder
  • Nicola J. Blake, University of California, Irvine
  • James F. Bresch, National Center for Atmospheric Research
  • Joanna Casey, University of Colorado Boulder
  • Bruce C. Daube, Harvard University
  • Minghui Diao, San Jose State University
  • Ernesto Diaz, California Institute of Technology
  • Heidi Dierssen, University of Connecticut
  • Valeria Donets, University of Miami
  • Bo-Cai Gao, Naval Research Laboratory
  • Michelle Gierach, California Institute of Technology
  • Robert Green, California Institute of Technology
  • Justin Haag, California Institute of Technology
  • Matthew Hayman, National Center for Atmospheric Research
  • Alan J. Hills, National Center for Atmospheric Research
  • Martín S. Hoecker-Martínez, University of Michigan - Ann Arbor
  • Shawn B. Honomichl, National Center for Atmospheric Research
  • Rebecca S. Hornbrook, National Center for Atmospheric Research
  • Jorgen B. Jensen, National Center for Atmospheric Research
  • Rong-Rong Li, Naval Research Laboratory
  • Ian McCubbin, California Institute of Technology
  • Kathryn McKain, University of Colorado Boulder
  • Eric J. Morgan, University of California, San Diego
  • Scott Nolte, California Institute of Technology
  • Jordan G. Powers, National Center for Atmospheric Research
  • Bryan Rainwater, University of Colorado Boulder
  • Kaylan Randolph, University of Connecticut
  • Mike Reeves, National Center for Atmospheric Research
  • Sue M. Schauffler, University of Miami
  • Katherine Smith, University of Colorado Boulder
  • Mackenzie Smith, University of Michigan - Ann Arbor
  • Jeff Stith, National Center for Atmospheric Research
  • Gregory Stossmeister, National Center for Atmospheric Research
  • Darin W. Toohey, University of Colorado Boulder
  • Andrew S. Watt, National Center for Atmospheric Research
Abstract
The Southern Ocean plays a critical role in the global climate system by mediating atmosphere–ocean partitioning of heat and carbon dioxide. However, Earth system models are demonstrably deficient in the Southern Ocean, leading to large uncertainties in future air–sea CO2 flux projections under climate warming and incomplete interpretations of natural variability on interannual to geologic time scales. Here, we describe a recent aircraft observational campaign, the O2/N2 Ratio and CO2 Airborne Southern Ocean (ORCAS) study, which collected measurements over the Southern Ocean during January and February 2016. The primary research objective of the ORCAS campaign was to improve observational constraints on the seasonal exchange of atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen with the Southern Ocean. The campaign also included measurements of anthropogenic and marine biogenic reactive gases; high-resolution, hyperspectral ocean color imaging of the ocean surface; and microphysical data relevant for understanding and modeling cloud processes. In each of these components of the ORCAS project, the campaign has significantly expanded the amount of observational data available for this remote region. Ongoing research based on these observations will contribute to advancing our understanding of this climatically important system across a range of topics including carbon cycling, atmospheric chemistry and transport, and cloud physics. This article presents an overview of the scientific and methodological aspects of the ORCAS project and highlights early findings.
Publication Date
February, 2018
DOI
10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0206.1
Publisher Statement
This article was published by the American Meteorological Society for the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 99, issue 2, pp. 381-402, 2018. The article can also be found online at this link.

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Citation Information
Britton B. Stephens, Matthew C. Long, Ralph F. Keeling, Eric A. Kort, et al.. "The O2/N2 Ratio and CO2 Airborne Southern Ocean Study" Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society Vol. 99 Iss. 2 (2018) p. 381 - 402 ISSN: 0003-0007
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/minghui-diao/32/