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An epigenetic mechanism for capecitabine resistance in mesothelioma.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communiations (2010)
  • Miguel A. Villalona Calero, M.D.
Mesothelioma is an uncommon malignancy whose global incidence continues to rise. The therapeutic standard for advanced disease is intravenous pemetrexed and cisplatin. The anti-folate capecitabine is significantly less effective than pemetrexed. The balance between thymidylate synthase (TS), dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), and thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is critical to the efficacy of capecitabine. DNA from mesothelioma cell lines was bisulfite treated and examined by MS-PCR, RNA was obtained for real-time PCR analysis, and protein lysates were obtained for Western immunoblot analysis. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT assay, comparing 5-aza-CdR pretreated or untreated cells with 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (DFUR), 5-FU, and pemetrexed. Finally bisulfite sequencing of the extracellular growth factor-1 (ECGF-1) gene was performed on 4 mesothelioma samples and pericardial tissue. One of the four cell lines tested (H290) was methylated for ECGF-1. This corresponded to a lack of TP expression by real-time PCR and Western immunoblot. Treatment with 1muM 5-aza-CdR increased TP mRNA and protein expression in H290. DFUR, the substrate for TP, showed increased cytotoxicity when delivered after 5-aza-CdR exposure in the methylated cell line. There was no difference in any of the unmethylated cell lines when cells were exposed to 5-FU or pemetrexed with or without 5-aza-CdR. Patient tumor samples revealed an increased number of methylated CpG sites in ECGF-1 compared to normal pericardium. Methylation of ECGF-1, leads to transcriptional silencing of TP and may explain the lack of any effect of capecitabine, especially when compared to pemetrexed.
Publication Date
January 15, 2010
Citation Information
Miguel A. Villalona Calero. "An epigenetic mechanism for capecitabine resistance in mesothelioma." Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communiations Vol. 391 Iss. 3 (2010) p. 1465 - 1470
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