An assessment of the park and recreation-related educational programs and departments within the United States indicates an increasing presence of web-based distance learning (WBDL) environments. According to a voluntary listing posted on NRPA’s official website, over 35 courses are offered within a WBDL environment with almost 20 U.S. colleges and universities participating. In addition, some programs currently offer a 100% WBDL baccalaureate and/or master degree. These numbers are also somewhat conservative as additional programs offered by universities continue to emerge as evident by the dialogue and postings on the online discussion forum of the Society of Park and Recreation Educators (SPREnet). With this increase in instructional technologies there has been a growing concern in the educational community regarding the effectiveness of these tools to meet the needs of the learners (Lukow & Ross, 2003; Van Dusen & Worthen, 1995). Despite this concern, many of the issues surrounding the effective implementation of WBDL programs have not been explored sufficiently. Grounded within social cognitive theory, this study examined the instructional design of a WBDL about pay-for-performance systems in parks and recreation. The effects of two instructional methods, online discussion groups and multiple formats, are assessed on cognitive outcomes. The moderating role of experience with technology, technology selfefficacy, and several individual characteristic variables were also examined.
- recreational administration,
- leisure studies,
- online learning
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/michael_mulvaney/2/