About Michael Lynn
Michael Lynn is a professor of consumer behavior and marketing at the Cornell University School of Hotel Administration. He received his PhD in social psychology from the Ohio State University in 1987, and has taught in the marketing departments of business and hospitality schools since 1988.
Lynn paid his way through school by waiting tables and bartending. This experience sparked his interest in service gratuities (tipping), a topic on which he has over 50 published academic papers. His other research focuses on consumer status and uniqueness seeking. Lynn was an associate editor of the Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics and is the current editor of the Cornell Hospitality Quarterly.
|2010 - Present||Burton M. Sack '61 Professor in Food and Beverage Management, Cornell University School of Hotel Administration|
|2008 - Present||Full Professor of Consumer Behavior and Marketing, Cornell University School of Hotel Administration|
|Present||Burton M. Sack '61 Professor in Food and Beverage Management, Cornell University School of Hotel Administration|
|2015 - 2018||Editor of the Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, Cornell University School of Hotel Administration|
|1995 - 2007||Associate Professor of Consumer Behavior and Marketing, Cornell University School of Hotel Administration|
|1990 - 1995||Assistant Professor of Marketing, University of Houston ‐ College of Business Administration|
|1988 - 1990||Visiting Assistant Professor of Marketing, University of Missouri - Columbia ‐ School of Business|
|1987 - 1988||Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology, University of Missouri - Columbia ‐ College of Arts and Science|
Honors and Awards
- 2006 Outstanding Reviewer Award from Editorial Review Board for Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
|1987||Ph.D. Social Psychology, Ohio State University|
|1983||M.A. Social Psychology, Ohio State University|
|1979||B.A. Psychology, University of Texas at Austin|
552 Statler Hall
The Contribution of Norm Familiarity to Race Differences in Tipping Behavior: A Replication and Extension Articles and Chapters (2014)
A large web-based survey found that (a) awareness of the 15% to 20% tipping norm partially mediates Black–White and Hispanic–White differences in restaurant tip size and (b) norm awareness predicts restaurant tip size for Blacks, ...
More Evidence Challenging the Robustness and Usefulness of the Attraction Effect Articles and Chapters (2014)
Ninety-one different attempts to produce an attraction effect (involving a total of 23 product classes and 73 different decoyed choice-sets) produced only 11 reliable effects – significantly fewer than expected given the statistical power of ...
Consumer Racial Profiling in U.S. Restaurants: Exploring Subtle Forms of Service Discrimination against Black Diners Articles and Chapters (2014)
In this paper we advance scholarship on consumer racial profiling (CRP), in general, and the practice as it occurs in restaurant establishments, in particular, by presenting findings from a survey of restaurant consumers that was ...
Clothing Color and Tipping: An Attempted Replication and Extension Articles and Chapters (2013)
An online, hypothetical, tipping-scenario experiment found that subjects tipped the servers less (not more) when those servers wore a red shirt than when they wore a white or black one and that female subjects perceived ...
Tips Predict Restaurant Sales Center for Hospitality Research Publications (2013)
An analysis of seven years of monthly charge-card sales and tip data from a multi-regional restaurant chain in the United States found that tip percentages predicted food sales in the following month. Thus, restaurant executives, ...
The Target Market Misapprehension: Lessons from Restaurant Duplication of Purchase Data Center for Hospitality Research Publications (2013)
This study tests the supposition that different types of restaurants appeal to or attract substantially divergent market segments. Instead of targeting specific markets, the analysis suggests that restaurant brand managers should take a mass marketing ...
A Comparison of Asians’, Hispanics’, and Whites’ Restaurant Tipping Articles and Chapters (2013)
Asians and Hispanics are perceived by many restaurant servers as poor tippers. This study tests the validity of those perceptions using data from a large restaurant chain’s online customer satisfaction survey. Findings partially support servers’ ...
Black-White Wage Gap Among Restaurant Servers: A Replication, Extension, and Exploration of Consumer Racial Discrimination in Tipping Articles and Chapters (2013)
There is a rich history of social science research centering on racial inequalities that continue to be observed across various markets (e.g., labor, housing, and credit markets) and social milieus. Existing research on racial discrimination ...
Do Consumer Prefer Round Prices? Evidence from Pay-What-You-Want Decisions and Self-Pumped Gasoline Purchases Articles and Chapters (2013)
Consumers selected round prices and/or sales-totals at greater than chance levels across two different pay-what-you-want situations and one self-pumped gasoline purchase. The differences among these situations suggest that the tendency to select round prices/sales-totals reflects ...
The Indirect Effects of Tipping Policies on Patronage Intentions through Perceived Expensiveness, Fairness, and Quality Articles and Chapters (2013)
Many service firms allow their employees to be directly compensated by customers via the institution of tipping despite the fact this practice exposes firms to substantial risks, such as collusion between employees and customers against ...
Black-White Differences in Beliefs about the U.S. Restaurant Tipping Norm: Moderated by Socio-Economic Status? Articles and Chapters (2012)
A re-analysis of two national telephone surveys found that black-white differences in awareness that it is customary to tip a percentage of the bill declined as socio-economic status increased. However, black-white differences in awareness that ...
Black-White Differences in Tipping: Moderated by Socio-Economic Status? Articles and Chapters (2012)
Two studies examining the role of SES as a moderator of Black-White differences in tipping found that higher socio-economic status reduced Black-White differences in stiffing and flat tipping, but increased Black-White differences in the amount ...
Who Uses Tips as a Reward for Services and When? An Examination of Potential Moderators of the Service-Tipping Relationship Articles and Chapters (2012)
Consumers in many countries often give voluntary payments of money (tips) to the workers who have served them. These tips are supposed to be a reward for service and research indicates that they do increase ...
Mega Tips 2: Twenty Tested Techniques to Increase Your Tips Center for Hospitality Research Tools (2011)
Approximately two million waiters and waitresses in the United States depend on tips for their income. These servers would benefit from knowing and using techniques to increase their tips. This manual offers twenty such techniques. ...
Is the Customer Always Right? The Potential for Racial Bias in Customer Evaluations of Employee Performance Articles and Chapters (2011)
With the encouragement of marketing scholars, many companies are tying employee incentives to customer ratings of satisfaction, service quality, or employee performance. One potential drawback to these practices is that customers' evaluations of employees—and, therefore, ...
Race Differences in Tipping: Testing the Role of Norm Familiarity Articles and Chapters (2011)
On average, Blacks tip less than whites in the United States. As a result, many servers dislike waiting on black tables and deliver inferior service to those Blacks seated in their sections. Furthermore, this race ...
Segmenting and Targeting Your Market: Strategies and Limitations Articles and Chapters (2011)
[Excerpt] Almost any marketing textbook will tell you that the key to successful marketing can be summed up by the STP strategy—that is, segmentation, targeting, and positioning. This approach suggests that the mass market consists ...
Voluntary Tipping and the Selective Attraction and Retention of Service Workers in the United States: An Application of the ASA Model Articles and Chapters (2011)
Gratuities paid by consumers are widely used to compensate workers in the service industry despite the fact that this practice permits and even encourages a variety of negative practices - from customer-employee collusion against the ...
The Impact of Prix Fixe Menu Price Formats on Guests’ Deal Perception Center for Hospitality Research Publications (2010)
A web study of nearly 500 U.S.-based respondents compared three possible formats for presenting the service charges for a prix fixe meal, namely, as a percentage added to the meal price, as a dollar amount ...
The Impact of magnitude salience on prix fixe menu price judgment Caesars Hospitality Research Summit (2010)
The flat price structure of prix fixe menus (i.e., fixed food prices and fixed service gratuities) affords restaurant operators the opportunity to present the same menu price in different ways. This report examined customers’ responses ...
A Framework for Evaluating the Customer Wait Experience Articles and Chapters (2010)
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose and test a model which defines the psychological processes that mediate the relationship between perceived wait duration (PWD) and satisfaction. This model will provide a ...
Tipping and Service Quality: A Within-Subjects Analysis Articles and Chapters (2010)
Restaurant tips are supposed to be an incentive/reward for the delivery of good service. In order for tipping to serve this function, consumers must leave larger tips in response to better service. Numerous studies have ...
Why Tip? An Empirical Test of Motivations for Tipping Car Guards Articles and Chapters (2010)
From a mainstream economic perspective, tipping is often seen as a rather anomalous or irrational economic activity since consumers could legally and willingly avoid paying tips altogether. Nevertheless, this pervasive economic activity generates tens of ...
Wine List Characteristics Associated with Greater Wine Sales Center for Hospitality Research Publications (2009)
Wine lists can be powerful merchandising tools that should be thoughtfully designed. Restaurant operators and observers have offered many suggestions regarding how to present a wine list to improve sales, but few direct tests of ...