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Article
Tipping Customs: The Effects of National Differences in Attitudes toward Tipping and Sensitivities to Duty and Social Pressure
Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (2015)
  • Michael Lynn
  • Mark M. Starbuck, Showa Women's University
Abstract
Consumers around the world often give voluntary sums of money (called “tips”) to the service workers who have served them, but the set of tipped professions and the amounts tipped to any one profession differ from country to country. One explanation for these national differences in tipping customs is that they reflect national differences in attitude toward tipping, sensitivity to duty/obligation to tip, and sensitivity to social pressure to tip. Furthermore, these variables have been hypothesized to mediate the previously observed effects on tipping customs of national extraversion, psychoticism and neuroticism respectively. Analyses of secondary data found support for these explanations of national differences in tipping customs, but only partial support for their roles as mediators of national personality effects on tipping customs. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed along with study limitations and directions for future research.
Keywords
  • tipping,
  • social norms,
  • national differences
Publication Date
August, 2015
Publisher Statement
Required Publisher Statement
© Elsevier. Final version published as: Lynn, W. M., & Starbuck, M. M. (2015). Tipping customs: The effects of national differences in attitudes toward tipping and sensitivities to duty and social pressure.Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, 57, 158-166. doi:10.1016/j.socec.2014.07.005
Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved.
Citation Information
Lynn, W. M., & Starbuck, M. M. (2015). Tipping customs: The effects of national differences in attitudes toward tipping and sensitivities to duty and social pressure [Electronic version]. Retrieved [insert date], from Cornell University, School of Hotel Administration site: http://scholarship.sha.cornell.edu/articles/x