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Nonpunctuated and Sweeping Policy Change: Bhutan Tobacco Policy Making from 1991 to 2009
Review of Policy Research (2012)
  • Michael S. Givel
This paper examines policy outputs associated with the 2004 Bhutan antitobacco law, including 2009 amendments, to determine if the law is congruent with punctuated equilibrium or social policy realism theories of policy change. There was no direct and sudden tobacco policy output change in Bhutan due to a shock to the policy system contrary to what punctuated equilibrium theory would predict. Rather, policy change was sweeping but nonpunctuated. This paper reconfirms prior findings of social policy realism theory that various and complex policy output patterns occur due to a mixture of contingent and complex factors. Under social policy realism, a complex interplay of factors drive policy with the state, corporate actors, and interest groups, and the market often playing a primary role. These complex policy outputs have a direct impact on society and the natural environment reflected in government policy output actions or inactions.
  • Non-punctuated and sweeping policy change,
  • Bhutan,
  • tobacco policy
Publication Date
September, 2012
Citation Information
Michael S. Givel. "Nonpunctuated and Sweeping Policy Change: Bhutan Tobacco Policy Making from 1991 to 2009" Review of Policy Research Vol. 29 Iss. 5 (2012)
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