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Strictly Business: Teacher Perceptions of Interaction in Virtual Schooling
All Faculty Publications
  • Charles R. Graham
  • Abigail Hawkins
  • Michael K. Barbour
  • class size,
  • distance education,
  • interaction,
  • virtual classrooms,
  • teaching methods,
  • online courses
This study explored the nature of teacher-student interaction from the perspective of eight virtual school teachers in an asynchronous, self-paced, statewide, supplemental virtual high school. Using intensity sampling, eight teachers who varied across discipline, grade level, and course completion rates were student-initiated and instructional in nature. The main procedural interactions focused on notifications sent to inactive students. Social interactions were minimal and viewed as having little pedagogical value. Institutional barriers such as class size and an absence of effective tracking mechanisms limited the amount and types of interaction teachers engaged in. Study implications and future research are discussed.
Original Publication Citation
Hawkins, A., Barbour, M.K., & Graham, C.R. (211) Strictly business: Teacher perceptions of interaction in virtual schooling. Journal of Distance Education. 25(2), 211.
Document Type
Peer-Reviewed Article
Publication Date
Permanent URL
Athabasca University Press
David O. McKay School of Education
Instructional Psychology and Technology
Citation Information
Charles R. Graham, Abigail Hawkins and Michael K. Barbour. "Strictly Business: Teacher Perceptions of Interaction in Virtual Schooling" (2011)
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