Skip to main content
Infant Responding Under Conjugate vs.Continuous Reinforcemen
Behavior Development Bulletin
  • Michael Voltaire, Nova Southeastern University
  • J.L. Gewirtz
  • M. Pelaez
Document Type
Publication Date
The performance of six human infants (aged 16 to 20 weeks) was compared under a conjugate- versus a continuous- reinforcement schedule. The contingent visual stimulus, a sequence of 5 colored lights, their intensity varying in proportion to response amplitude under the conjugate hut not under the continuous schedule, was presented alone and together with a constant auditory contingent stimulus—chimes placed behind the lights—under both schedules. The target operant response—a foot press of a vertical panel—produced the lights with/without the tinkling chimes. A reversal design counterbalanced with alternating treatments was implemented for each half of the participants. Visual inspection of the graphed-operant frequencies for all six infants, and one-tail binomial tests, showed at p < 0.008 that: (a) the two contingent-stimulus complexes, visual alone and visual-plus auditory, functioned as reinforcers of leg thrusts under both reinforcement schedules; the visual-plus-auditory consequence was a more effective reinforcer for leg-thrust operants than was the visual consequence alone; and, (c) compared to the continuous CRF schedule, the conjugate-reinforcement schedule generated higher peak responding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
Citation Information
Michael Voltaire, J.L. Gewirtz and M. Pelaez. "Infant Responding Under Conjugate vs.Continuous Reinforcemen" Behavior Development Bulletin Vol. 1 (2005) p. 71 - 79 ISSN: 1942-0722
Available at: