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Article
Biased Impartiality Among National Hockey League Referees
Mathematics Faculty Scholarship
  • Michael J. Lopez, Skidmore College
  • Kevin Snyder
Document Type
Article
Publication Date
1-1-2013
Keywords
  • biased impartiality,
  • National Hockey League,
  • referees
Abstract
This paper builds an economic model of referee behavior in the National Hockey League using period-specific, in-game data. Recognizing that referees are influenced by a desire for perceived fairness, this model isolates situations where a referee is more likely to call a penalty on one team. While prior research has focused on a systematic bias in favor of the home team, we find that referee bias also depends upon game-specific conditions that incentivize an evening of penalty calls. Refereeing games in this fashion maintains the integrity of the game, thus benefiting spectator perceptions and opportunities for financial returns.
DOI
10.2139/ssrn.2259798
Published In
International Journal of Sport Finance
Pages
208-223
Citation Information
Michael J. Lopez, Kevin Snyder, “Biased Impartiality Among National Hockey League Referees,” International Journal of Sport Finance, 2013, 8-3. http://fitpublishing.com/content/biased-impartiality-among-national-hockey-league-referees-pp-208-223