Neotropical eucoiline genera that have been included in and allied with the Zaeucoila genus group are redescribed. Following character analysis and phylogenetic reconstruction (25 taxa, 96 morphological characters, 1452 ribosomal and mitochondrial characters), this informal genus group was found to be monophyletic, and hence raised to formal recognition as a tribe of eucoilines, namely Zaeucoilini new tribe. Through phylogenetic reconstruction, Aegeseucoela Buffington was determined to be polyphyletic; the type species of Aegeseucoela, A. grenadensis (Ashmead), is transferred to Agrostocynips comb.n.; the orphaned species, A. flavotincta (Kieffer), is transferred to Marthiella Buffington gen.n., comb.n. Based on the examination of the holotype of Diranchis flavipes Ashmead, 1900, this species is transferred to Rhabdeucoela comb.n., where it is both a junior, subjective synonym of flavipes (Ashmead, 1894) syn.n. and a junior, secondary homonym. Zaeucoilini contains the following genera: Agrostocynips Diaz, Dettmeria Borgmeier, Dicerataspis Ashmead, Lopheucoila Weld, Marthiella Buffington, Moneucoela Kieffer, Moritiella Buffington, Penteucoila Weld, Preseucoela Buffington, Rhabdeucoela Kieffer, Tropideucoila Ashmead and Zaeucoila Ashmead. Characters and character states applicable specifically to Zaeucoilini are defined and illustrated. Characters supporting the monophyly of each genus are discussed. The plesiomorphic host for members of the Zaeucoilini are postulated as agromyzid leaf-mining Diptera, with one shift within the clade containing Dettmeria, Dicerataspis and Lopheucoila to fruit-infesting Diptera. New host records are reported for species of Preseucoela, Rhabdeucoela and Zaeucoila. All known hosts for the species of each genus are reported, as are known distributions and locations of type specimens.
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