Skip to main content
Insulin pump therapy in toddlers and preschool children with type 1 diabetes mellitus
Lee Lab Publications
  • Jean Litton, Duke University Medical Center
  • Alan Rice, Duke University Medical Center
  • Nancy Friedman, Duke University Medical Center
  • Jon Oden, Duke University Medical Center
  • Mary M. Lee, University of Massachusetts Medical School
  • Michael Freemark, Duke University Medical Center
UMMS Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics
Publication Date
Document Type
Child Welfare; Child, Preschool; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1; Diabetic Ketoacidosis; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Emergency Medical Services; Female; Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated; Humans; Hypoglycemic Agents; Infant; Infant Welfare; Insulin; *Insulin Infusion Systems; Male; North Carolina; Physicians; Severity of Illness Index; Treatment Outcome; Weight Gain
OBJECTIVE: To test whether glycemic control in young children could be achieved more effectively and safely by using continuous insulin infusions administered by insulin pumps. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed the effects of pump therapy in nine toddlers in whom type 1 diabetes developed between the ages of 10 and 40 months. After a mean of 13.7 months of therapy with multiple daily injections, patients were treated with insulin pumps for periods ranging from 7 to 19 months (mean, 12.7 months). RESULTS: Before initiation of pump therapy, HbA1c levels averaged 9.5% +/- 0.4%, and patients had a mean of 0.52 episodes per month of severe hypoglycemia (uncontrolled shaking, inconsolable crying, disorientation, or seizures). After initiation of pump therapy, HbA1c levels declined to 7.9% +/- 0.3% (P 80%, reflecting increasing parental confidence and independence in diabetic care. Subjective assessments revealed significant improvements in quality of life and high levels of satisfaction with pump therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Insulin pump therapy may provide an effective alternative for selected preschool children with type 1 diabetes.
DOI of Published Version
J Pediatr. 2002 Oct;141(4):490-5. Link to article on publisher's site

At the time of publication, Mary Lee was not yet affiliated with the University of Massachusetts Medical School.

Related Resources
Link to Article in PubMed
PubMed ID
Citation Information
Jean Litton, Alan Rice, Nancy Friedman, Jon Oden, et al.. "Insulin pump therapy in toddlers and preschool children with type 1 diabetes mellitus" Vol. 141 Iss. 4 (2002) ISSN: 0022-3476 (Linking)
Available at: