We develop further our model of affirmative action as help (Pratkanis & Turner, 1996b; Tamer & Pratkanis, 1994) by looking at the impact aid on the donor. White Americans often take one of three approaches to affirmative action. First, they can reject affirmative action because of their own personal frustrations. Second, they can engage in selective aid that maintains tile basic patterns of social dominance. Both of these approaches can damage the psychological functioning of Whites. Third. White Americans can proactively seek to remove discriminatory barriers in a process we call democratic altruism, thereby opening the possibility of learning from diverse others and growth as a person. We conclude by discussing tactics for promoting democratic altruism.
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