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Christmas Gift Search Behaviors: A Three-Country Comparison
The Journal of International Consumer Marketing (2003)
  • Mark Cleveland, The University of Western Ontario
  • Barry J. Babin, University of Southern Mississippi
  • Michel Laroche
  • Philippa Ward
This study explores the underlying determinants of in-store information search for a Christmas clothing gift, focusing specifically on cross-cultural differences. A self-administered survey, containing personality, situational, demographic, and search behavior measures, was distributed to a sample of actual consumers residing in 3 countries: Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed 3 distinct and reliable in-store search behaviors (macro, micro, and salesclerk help); exploratory factor analyses revealed 23 independent factors (13 personality and 10 situational). Country sample differences were assessed using chi-square tests, ANOVAs, MANCOVAs, multiple regression analyses, and Chow tests. Cross-national differences were found with respect to the relationships/importance of the various search antecedents to in-store search behaviors. Other observed between-country differences and directions for future research are also discussed.
  • Information search; Christmas shopping,
  • Gift buying,
  • International,
  • Cross-cultural consumer behavior,
  • Retail
Publication Date
Citation Information
Mark Cleveland, Barry J. Babin, Michel Laroche and Philippa Ward. "Christmas Gift Search Behaviors: A Three-Country Comparison" The Journal of International Consumer Marketing Vol. 15 Iss. 4 (2003)
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