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Pain assessment in nonverbal older adults with advanced dementia
Perspectives in psychiatric care
  • Marianne Smith, University of Iowa
Document Type
Peer Reviewed
Publication Date
NLM Title Abbreviation
Perspect Psychiatr Care
PubMed ID
DOI of Published Version
TOPIC: Pain assessment is a particular challenge among individuals with advanced dementia who lack the ability to formulate and express their experience of discomfort. PURPOSE: Awareness of pain scales and methods specifically designed for use with nonverbal individuals with dementia is critical to expanded use and testing in clinical settings. SOURCES: Computerized literature searches using four databases revealed the five observational scales and two caregiver reports methods reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: A small number of valid, reliable, and sensitive scales are available for use by nurses and allied health personnel. Each has strengths and limitations and all would benefit from additional testing.
  • Activities of Daily Living,
  • Aged,
  • Communication Disorders/complications/nursing,
  • Dementia/complications,
  • Facial Expression,
  • Geriatric Assessment/methods,
  • Humans,
  • Kinesics,
  • Nonverbal Communication,
  • Nursing Assessment/methods,
  • Observer Variation,
  • Pain/complications/diagnosis,
  • Pain Measurement/methods/nursing/standards,
  • Proxy,
  • Psychometrics,
  • Questionnaires,
  • Reproducibility of Results,
  • Respiration,
  • Sensitivity and Specificity,
  • Severity of Illness Index,
  • Verbal Behavior
Published Article/Book Citation
Perspectives in psychiatric care, 41:3 (2005) pp.99-113. DOI:10.1111/j.1744-6163.2005.00021.x.
Citation Information
Marianne Smith. "Pain assessment in nonverbal older adults with advanced dementia" Perspectives in psychiatric care Vol. 41 Iss. 3 (2005) p. 99 - 113 ISSN: 0031-5990
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