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Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers
Journal of Ethnopharmacology
  • Zhiyi Qiang, Iowa State University
  • Zhong Ye, University of California, Davis
  • Catherine C. Hauck, Iowa State University
  • Patricia A. Murphy, Iowa State University
  • Joe-Ann McCoy, United States Department of Agriculture
  • Mark P. Widrlechner, United States Department of Agriculture
  • Manju B. Reddy, Iowa State University
  • Suzanne Hendrich, Iowa State University
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Ethnopharmacological relevance Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid-related compound found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be beneficial for gastrointestinal health in general. Aim of the study To investigate the permeabilities of RA and UA as pure compounds and in Prunella vulgaris and Salvia officinalis ethanol extracts across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers. Materials and methods The permeabilities and phase II biotransformation of RA and UA as pure compounds and in herbal extracts were compared using Caco-2 cells with HPLC detection. Results The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) for RA and RA in Prunella vulgaris extracts was 0.2 ± 0.05 × 10−6 cm/s, significantly increased to 0.9 ± 0.2 × 10−6 cm/s after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment. Papp for UA and UA in Salvia officinalis extract was 2.7 ± 0.3 × 10−6 cm/s and 2.3 ± 0.5 × 10−6 cm/s before and after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment, respectively. Neither compound was affected in permeability by the herbal extract matrix. Conclusion RA and UA in herbal extracts had similar uptake as that found using the pure compounds, which may simplify the prediction of compound efficacy, but the apparent lack of intestinal glucuronidation/sulfation of UA is likely to further enhance the bioavailability of that compound compared with RA.

This article is from Journal of Ethnopharmacology 137, no. 3 (11 October 2011): 1107–1112, doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.07.037.

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Zhiyi Qiang, Zhong Ye, Catherine C. Hauck, Patricia A. Murphy, et al.. "Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers" Journal of Ethnopharmacology Vol. 137 Iss. 3 (2011) p. 1107 - 1112
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