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Hard and soft projects: A framework for analysis
International journal of project management (2004)
  • Lynn Crawford
  • Julien Pollack
This paper provides clarification on the use of the terms ‘hard' and ‘soft' in the context of project and program management, by exploring what it means for a project to be hard or soft. This paper draws on the authors' practice based research into large organisational change programs in a variety of contexts, and the literature on project management, systems thinking and evaluation. A framework for exploring the hardness and softness of project process and outcomes is provided. It acts as an aid to structured discussion and informed decision making about the application of methods for managing projects and programs and the appropriate methods for evaluating their success. This framework is designed to aid in the transfer of lessons learned to practice by offering a common point of comparison between projects, and has potential for use as a predictive aid to resourcing. Its use is demonstrated in three cases. © Copyright Elsevier Ltd and IPMA, 2004
  • hard and soft,
  • systems approach,
  • project analysis,
  • lessons learned
Publication Date
November 1, 2004
Citation Information
Lynn Crawford and Julien Pollack. "Hard and soft projects: A framework for analysis" International journal of project management Vol. 22 Iss. 8 (2004)
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