2014 marks the 50th anniversary of the Land Statute (Law n. 4,504 / 1964). Enacted at the beginning of the military dictatorship, the Land Statute was the formula found to contain the pressure coming from rural areas which demanded a government policy based on Land Reform. Although designed primarily to distribute land in the Northern Region, after the re-democratization in 1985, peasant movements were present in the five regions of the country, showing that the struggle for land happened nationwide. According to the National Institute for Settlement and Agrarian Reform, by 2013, in Brazil 1,288,444 families were settled in the North, Northeast, Midwest, Southeast and South regions, incorporating an area of 88.197.147ha into the land reform program. The most serious problem resulting from this model of land occupation was uncontrolled deforestation in the settlements with the aim of converting land use to agriculture and livestock activities, which meant a drastic increase in the national rate of deforestation. In this context, the National Institute for Settlement and Agrarian Reform created the Combat Plan and Alternatives to Illegal Deforestation in the Settlements of the Legal Amazon, called Green Settlements Program, which together with the Resolutions of the National Council for the Environment, of 2006 and 2013, established procedures for environmental licensing in agrarian reform settlements, and had a goal to stop deforestation in those areas. With the publication of the new Forest Code (Law n. 12,651 / 2012) the Rural Environmental Cadastre was created, representing another tool to control deforestation, especially those occurring in the areas of rural settlements. Through this registration, settlers will be able to obtain the regularization of areas consolidated until July 22, 2008, the date of the enactment of Decree n. 6514, which deals with administrative infractions and sanctions related to the environment and the procedure to ascertain them.
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/lucasabreubarroso/7/