Combining Formal and Informal Caregiving Roles: The Psychosocial Implications of Double- and Triple-Duty CareThe Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences (2016)
Objectives. Women who combine formal and informal caregiving roles represent a unique, understudied population. In the literature, healthcare employees who simultaneously provide unpaid elder care at home have been referred to as double-duty caregivers. The present study broadens this perspective by examining the psychosocial implications of double-duty child care (child care only), double-duty elder care (elder care only), and triple-duty care (both child care and elder care or “sandwiched” care).
Method. Drawing from the Work, Family, and Health Study, we focus on a large sample of women working in nursing homes in the United States (n= 1,399). We use multiple regression analysis and analysis of covariance tests to examine a range of psychosocial implications associated with double- and triple-duty care.
Results. Compared with nonfamily caregivers, double-duty child caregivers indicated greater family-to-work conflict and poorer partner relationship quality. Double-duty elder caregivers reported more family-to-work conflict, perceived stress, and psychological distress, whereas triple-duty caregivers indicated poorer psychosocial functioning overall.
Discussion. Relative to their counterparts without family caregiving roles, women with combined caregiving roles reported poorer psychosocial well-being. Additional research on women with combined caregiving roles, especially triple-duty caregivers, should be a priority amidst an aging population, older workforce, and growing number of working caregivers.
Citation InformationDePasquale, N., Davis, K. D., Zarit, S. H., Moen, P., Hammer, L. B., & Almeida, D. M. (2016). Combining Formal and Informal Caregiving Roles: The Psychosocial Implications of Double- and Triple-Duty Care. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 71(2), 201–211. http://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbu139