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Applying the Transtheoretical Model to Exercise: A Systematic and Comprehensive Review of the Literature
Health Promotion Practice (2006)
  • Leslie Spencer, Rowan University
  • Troy B. Adams
  • Sarah Malone
  • Lindsey Roy
  • Elizabeth Yost
Three questions guided a literature review of the transtheoretical model (TTM) as applied to exercise to address the evidence for stage-matched interventions, the description of priority populations, and the identification of valid TTM measurement tools. One-hundredand-fifty studies were reviewed. Results indicate preliminary support for the use of stage-matched exercise interventions. Most studies have focused on White, middle-class, female populations, limiting the generalizability of their findings. Valid and reliable measures exist for stage of change, decisional balance, processes of change, self-efficacy, and temptations to not exercise; however, more research is needed to refine these measures. Evidence for the construct validity of the TTM as applied to exercise is mixed. When designing and implementing TTM-based exercise interventions, practitioners and policy makers are encouraged to clearly define the term exercise, choose a valid and reliable staging tool, and employ all TTM constructs and not just stage membership.
  • transtheoretical model,
  • stage of change,
  • exercise,
  • fitness
Publication Date
October, 2006
Citation Information
Leslie Spencer, Troy B. Adams, Sarah Malone, Lindsey Roy, et al.. "Applying the Transtheoretical Model to Exercise: A Systematic and Comprehensive Review of the Literature" Health Promotion Practice Vol. 7 Iss. 4 (2006) p. 428 - 443 ISSN: 1524-8399
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