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Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (1988)
  • David Watson, University of Iowa
  • Lee A Clark
  • Auke Tellegen
Abstract

In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved)

Keywords
  • construction & validity & reliability of Positive & Negative Affect Schedule scales,
  • college students
Disciplines
Publication Date
June, 1988
Citation Information
David Watson, Lee A Clark and Auke Tellegen. "Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol. 54 Iss. 6 (1988)
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/lee_anna_clark/6/