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Article
Hyperbolic-Cosine Waveguide Tapers and Oversize Rectangular Waveguide for Reduced Broadband Insertion Loss in W-Band Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: II. Broadband Characterization
Review of Scientific Instruments (2016)
  • Jason W. Sidabras, Medical College of Wisconsin
  • Robert A. Strangeway, Medical College of Wisconsin
  • Richard R. Mett, Medical College of Wisconsin
  • James R. Anderson, Medical College of Wisconsin
  • Laxman Mainali, Medical College of Wisconsin
  • James S. Hyde, Medical College of Wisconsin
Abstract
Experimental results have been reported on an oversize rectangular waveguide assembly operating nominally at 94 GHz. It was formed using commercially available WR28 waveguide as well as a pair of specially designed tapers with a hyperbolic-cosine shape from WR28 to WR10 waveguide [R. R. Mett et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 074704 (2011)]. The oversize section reduces broadband insertion loss for an Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) probe placed in a 3.36 T magnet. Hyperbolic-cosine tapers minimize reflection of the main mode and the excitation of unwanted propagating waveguide modes. Oversize waveguide is distinguished from corrugated waveguide, overmoded waveguide, or quasi-optic techniques by minimal coupling to higher-order modes. Only the TE10 mode of the parent WR10 waveguide is propagated. In the present work, a new oversize assembly with a gradual 90◦ twist was implemented. Microwave power measurements show that the twisted oversize waveguide assembly reduces the power loss in the observe and pump arms of a W-band bridge by an average of 2.35 dB and 2.41 dB, respectively, over a measured 1.25 GHz bandwidth relative to a straight length of WR10 waveguide. Network analyzer measurements confirm a decrease in insertion loss of 2.37 dB over a 4 GHz bandwidth and show minimal amplitude distortion of approximately 0.15 dB. Continuous wave EPR experiments confirm these results. The measured phase variations of the twisted oversize waveguide assembly, relative to an ideal distortionless transmission line, are reduced by a factor of two compared to a straight length of WR10 waveguide. Oversize waveguide with proper transitions is demonstrated as an effective way to increase incident power and the return signal for broadband EPR experiments. Detailed performance characteristics, including continuous wave experiment using 1 µM 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl in aqueous solution, provided here serve as a benchmark for other broadband low-loss probes in millimeter-wave EPR bridges.
Keywords
  • mechanical instruments,
  • vector network analyzer,
  • telecommunications engineering,
  • phase variation,
  • electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy,
  • chemical compounds and components
Disciplines
Publication Date
March, 2016
DOI
10.1063/1.4942642
Citation Information
Jason W. Sidabras, Robert A. Strangeway, Richard R. Mett, James R. Anderson, et al.. "Hyperbolic-Cosine Waveguide Tapers and Oversize Rectangular Waveguide for Reduced Broadband Insertion Loss in W-Band Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: II. Broadband Characterization" Review of Scientific Instruments Vol. 87 Iss. 3 (2016) p. 034704-1 - 034704-6
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/laxman-mainali/3/