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TRIGEMINAL REPELLENTS DO NOT PROMOTE CONDITIONED ODOR AVOIDANCE IN EUROPEAN STARLINGS
Wilson Bulletin (1996)
  • Larry Clark
Abstract

Birds, and in particular European Starlings (Stumus vulgaris), avoid con­ sumption of fluid and food treated with the natural plant products, methyl anthranilate and o-aminoacetophenone. Avoidance is an unlearnedresponse most likely mediated via chem­ ically sensitive fibers of the trigeminal nerve. The trigeminal nerve codes for chemical irritation and pain. Starlings are not repelled by the odor of the compounds, nor is olfaction important in the avoidance response. Moreover, starlings fail to learn to avoid the odor of the repellents, even after direct oral contact with liquid repellent. While trigeminal irritants can be powerful repellents, the absence of associative learning for these repellents will influence the application strategy for formulation and use. More broadly, the difference in learning abilities associated with trigeminal repellents and those commonly responsible for conditioned avoidance learning have implications for the structure of chemical defenses of fruits and the prevention of untimely frugivory

Keywords
  • starlings,
  • repellents,
  • trigeminal,
  • odor,
  • olfaction,
  • irritation,
  • learning,
  • associative learning,
  • wildlife management
Publication Date
1996
Citation Information
Larry Clark. "TRIGEMINAL REPELLENTS DO NOT PROMOTE CONDITIONED ODOR AVOIDANCE IN EUROPEAN STARLINGS" Wilson Bulletin (1996)
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/larry_clark/113/