Skip to main content
Sexual victimization, health status, and VA healthcare utilization among lesbian and bisexual OEF/OIF veterans
Women’s Health Research Faculty Publications
  • Kristin M Mattocks, University of Massachusetts Medical School Worcester
  • Anne Sadler, University of Iowa
  • Elizabeth M. Yano, University of California - Los Angeles
  • Erin E. Krebs, University of Minnesota
  • Laurie Zephyrin, Department of Veterans Affairs
  • Cynthia Brandt, Yale University
  • Rachel Kimerling, National Center for PTSD
  • Theo Sandfort, Columbia University
  • Melissa E. Dichter, Philadelphia VA Medical Cente
  • Jeffrey J. Weiss, Mount Sinai School of Medicine
  • Jeroan J. Allison, University of Massachusetts Medical School
  • Sally Haskell, Yale University
UMMS Affiliation
Department of Quantitative Health Sciences
Publication Date
Document Type
Adult; Afghan Campaign 2001-; Bisexuality; Cohort Studies; Crime Victims; Female; *Health Status; Homosexuality, Female; Humans; Iraq War, 2003-2011; Male; Patient Acceptance of Health Care; Prospective Studies; Sex Offenses; Sexual Behavior; United States; United States Department of Veterans Affairs; Veterans; Veterans Health
BACKGROUND: Many lesbian and bisexual (LB) women veterans may have been targets of victimization in the military based on their gender and presumed sexual orientation, and yet little is known regarding the health or mental health of LB veterans, nor the degree to which they feel comfortable receiving care in the VA. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of mental health and gender-specific conditions, VA healthcare satisfaction and trauma exposure among LB veterans receiving VA care compared with heterosexually-identified women veterans receiving. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) women veterans at two large VA facilities. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred and sixty five women veterans that completed a baseline survey. Thirty-five veterans (9.6 %) identified as gay or lesbian (4.7 %), or bisexual (4.9 %). MAIN MEASURES: Measures included sexual orientation, military sexual trauma, mental and gender-specific health diagnoses, and VA healthcare utilization and satisfaction. KEY RESULTS: LB OEF/OIF veterans were significantly more likely to have experienced both military and childhood sexual trauma than heterosexual women (MST: 31 % vs. 13 %, p < .001; childhood sexual trauma: 60 % vs. 36 %, p = .01), to be hazardous drinkers (32 % vs. 16 %, p = .03) and rate their current mental health as worse than before deployment (35 % vs. 16 %, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Many LB veterans have experienced sexual victimization, both within the military and as children, and struggle with substance abuse and poor mental health. Health care providers working with female Veterans should be aware of high rates of military sexual trauma and childhood abuse and refer women to appropriate VA treatment and support groups for sequelae of these experiences. Future research should focus on expanding this study to include a larger and more diverse sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender veterans receiving care at VA facilities across the country.
DOI of Published Version
J Gen Intern Med. 2013 Jul;28 Suppl 2:S604-8. doi: 10.1007/s11606-013-2357-9. Link to article on publisher's site
Related Resources
Link to Article in PubMed
PubMed ID
Citation Information
Kristin M Mattocks, Anne Sadler, Elizabeth M. Yano, Erin E. Krebs, et al.. "Sexual victimization, health status, and VA healthcare utilization among lesbian and bisexual OEF/OIF veterans" Vol. 28 Suppl 2 (2013) ISSN: 0884-8734 (Linking)
Available at: