Skip to main content
Bayesian Factor Analysis for Mixed Ordinal and Continuous Responses
Political Analysis (2004)
  • Kevin M. Quinn, Berkeley Law

Many situations exist in which a latent construct has both ordinal and continuous indicators. This presents a problem for the applied researcher because standard measurement models are not designed to accommodate mixed ordinal and continuous data. I address this problem by formulating a measurement model that is appropriate for such mixed multivariate responses. This model unifies standard normal theory factor analysis and item response theory models for ordinal data. I detail a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm for model fitting. I apply the model to cross-national data on political-economic risk and find that the model works well. Software for fitting this model is publicly available in the MCMCpack (Martin and Quinn 2004, ‘‘MCMCpack 0.4–8’’) R package.

Publication Date
Citation Information
Kevin M. Quinn. "Bayesian Factor Analysis for Mixed Ordinal and Continuous Responses" Political Analysis Vol. 12 Iss. 4 (2004)
Available at: