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Hypoglycemia in unmonitored full-term newborns—a surveillance study
Paediatrics and Child Health (2018)
  • Michael Flavin
  • Horacio Osiovich
  • Kevin Coughlin, Western University
  • Michael Sgro
  • Joel Ray
  • Liyuan Hu
  • Juan Andres Leon
  • Keith Gregoire
  • Logan Charles Barr
  • Alessia Gallipoli
  • Karen Grewal
Background and objectives Hypoglycemia monitoring is not recommended for most full-term newborns. We wished to determine the incidence, presentation and case characteristics of hypoglycemia in low-risk newborns. Methods With the assistance of the Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program, we conducted a national study of severe hypoglycemia in apparently low-risk full-term newborns. Paediatricians who reported a case were sent a detailed questionnaire and the data were analyzed. Results All 93 confirmed cases were singletons, 56% were first-borns and 65% were male. An 8% rate of First Nations cases was twofold the population rate. Maternal hypertension rate was 23%, fourfold the general pregnancy rate. Maternal obesity was double the general pregnancy rate at 23%. Concerning signs or feeding issues were noted in 98% at the time of diagnosis. Median time to diagnosis was 4.1 hours. Mean blood glucose at intravenous (IV) start was 1.4 ± 0.5 hours (SD). Seventy-eight per cent had at least one of four potential stress indicators and were more likely to have early diagnosis (P=0.03). Major signs were present in 20%. Those cases presented later and had lower glucose levels (median=0.8 mmol/L versus 1.6 mmol/L, [P<0.001). Twenty-five per cent of cases had birth weight less than the 10th centile. Neurodevelopmental concern was reported in 20%. Of the 13 cases which had brain magnetic resonance imaging, 11 were abnormal. Conclusion Hypoglycemia in unmonitored newborns is uncommon but is associated with significant morbidity. We provide a range of clues to help identify these newborns soon after birth. Widespread adoption of norm-based standards to identify small-for-gestational age infants is supported.
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Citation Information
Michael Flavin, Horacio Osiovich, Kevin Coughlin, Michael Sgro, et al.. "Hypoglycemia in unmonitored full-term newborns—a surveillance study" Paediatrics and Child Health (2018)
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