A newly discovered approach to extending General Systems Theory as defined by George Klir through a set of Special Systems is described. General Systems Theory is distinguished from the theory of Meta-systems. Then, a hinge of three special systems is identified between systems and meta-systems. These special systems are defined by algebraic analogies. Anomalous physical phenomena are specified that exemplify the structures defined by the algebraic analogies. The extraordinary efficacious properties of these special systems are explained. These include ultra-efficiency and ultra-effectiveness. These three special systems are called dissipative, autopoietic, and reflexive. They are anomalous within general systems theory and provide a bridge between the theory of systems and the theory of recursive meta-systems. This extension of Systems Theory allows us to move step by step through a series of emergent levels up to a comprehensive Meta-systems Theory. In that theory the different special systems fit together to produce the inverse of General Systems Theory which is called Emergent Meta-systems Theory. Emergent Meta-systems are composed of the meta-operations which appear at each level of algebraic emergence from the system through the three levels of special systems. Each level can be seen as a meta-operator within the overall structure of the Emergent Meta-system. Together these operations produce a theoretical model of the meta-system. Historical examples of artifacts with the structure of the Emergent Meta-system are pointed out. Four different series of anomalous physical, logical and mathematical structures are related which give different views of the special systems. Besides the series of solitons and the various other physical phenomena that exemplify ultra-efficiency we also look at the series of topological structures of which the mobius strip and kleinian bottles are the best known examples. These other mathematical and physical phenomena which indicate the nature of the special systems elaborate on the structures established through the algebraic analogies. In general we are indicating a new set of anomalous systems that may be used to extend and enrich general systems theory and build a bridge to a complete meta-systems theory. The special systems form the underlying basis of Meta-systems theory because it is through their interaction that they form the Emergent Meta-system. By recognizing this peculiar state of affairs we both found the General Meta-systems Theory and a Holonomics that deals with the Special Systems Theory at the same time.

- Systems Theory,
- Dissipative Systems,
- Autopoietic Systems,
- Reflexive Systems,
- Recursive Systems,
- Meta-Systems,
- Meta-systems Theory,
- Ontology,
- Existence,
- Emergence,
- Social Phenomenology,
- Social Theory,
- Ultra-efficacy,
- Ultra-effectiveness,
- Ultra-efficiency,
- Holonomics,
- Complexnion,
- Quaternion,
- Octonion,
- Sedenion,
- Algebra,
- Hyper-complex Algebras,
- Soliton,
- Soliton Breather,
- Instanaton,
- Soliton Super Breather,
- Super-Conductivity,
- Bose-Einstein Condensate,
- Super-Fluidity,
- Mobius Strip,
- Kleinian Bottle,
- Hyper-Kleinian Bottle,
- Lemniscate,
- Autogenesis,
- Computational Sociology,
- Autopoietic Sociology,
- Social Construction,
- Reflexive Sociology,
- Sociological Theory,
- Autogenesis,
- Gaia,
- Supra-rationality,
- Paradoxicality,
- Nihilism,
- Non-nihilistic Distinction,
- Gestalt,
- Flow,
- Proto-Gestalt,
- Proto-Flow,
- Environment,
- Context,
- Situation,
- Milieu,
- Propensity,
- Disposition,
- Tendency,
- Field.

*Reflexive Autopoietic Systems Theory*(2000)

Available at: http://works.bepress.com/kent_palmer/4/