Stigma is one of the great challenges in the battle against HIV/AIDS. Goffman (1963) defined stigma as “an attribute that is deeply discrediting within a particular social interaction” (p. 3) and conceptualized stigma as arising from three different sources: physical deformity, blemishes of character, and tribal stigma of race, nation, and religion. Perceived stigma of HIV/AIDS (PSHA) is the belief that others in society will devalue and discriminate against them because they have HIV disease. Internalized stigma of HIV/AIDS (ISHA) refers to stigma which a person with HIV/AIDS has incorporated into their self-concept. Stigma may adversely affect many aspects of a person’s life. In particular, stigma may hinder self-disclosure of HIV status, which is necessary to receive needed services and social support.
- internalized stigma,
- perceived stigma
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