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Diabetes and CKD in the United States Population, 2009-2014.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
  • Leila R Zelnick
  • Noel S Weiss
  • Bryan R Kestenbaum
  • Cassianne Robinson-Cohen
  • Patrick J Heagerty
  • Katherine Tuttle, Providence Health Care, Spokane, WA
  • Yoshio N Hall
  • Irl B Hirsch
  • Ian H de Boer
Document Type
Publication Date
  • Albumins,
  • Blood Pressure Determination,
  • Confidence Intervals,
  • Cross-Sectional Studies,
  • Epidemiology and outcomes,
  • Glucose,
  • Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated,
  • Linear Models,
  • Nutrition Surveys,
  • Prevalence,
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic,
  • albuminuria,
  • blood pressure,
  • chronic kidney disease,
  • creatinine,
  • diabetes,
  • diabetes mellitus,
  • diabetic nephropathy,
  • glomerular filtration rate,
  • hypertension,
  • Albuminuria/urine,
  • Creatinine/urine,
  • Cross-Sectional Studies,
  • Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology,
  • Female,
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate,
  • Humans,
  • Male,
  • Middle Aged,
  • Nutrition Surveys,
  • Prevalence,
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology,
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology,
  • United States/epidemiology

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Diabetes is an important cause of CKD. However, among people with diabetes, it is unclear to what extent CKD is attributable to diabetes itself versus comorbid conditions, such as advanced age and hypertension. We examined associations of diabetes with clinical manifestations of CKD independent of age and BP and the extent to which diabetes contributes to the overall prevalence of CKD in the United States.

DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 15,675 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 2009 to 2014. Diabetes was defined by use of glucose-lowering medications or hemoglobin A

RESULTS: For participants with diabetes (

CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes is strongly associated with both albuminuria and reduced GFR independent of demographics and hypertension, contributing substantially to the burden of CKD in the United States.

Clinical Institute
Kidney & Diabetes
Population Health
Citation Information
Leila R Zelnick, Noel S Weiss, Bryan R Kestenbaum, Cassianne Robinson-Cohen, et al.. "Diabetes and CKD in the United States Population, 2009-2014." Clin J Am Soc Nephrol (2017)
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