Background: The defeat-entrapment theory has been proposed to explain both depression and suicidal behavior. Methods: Measures of defeat, entrapment, hopelessness and depression were administered to Iranian and American students. Results: Scores on measures of hopelessness, defeat, entrapment and depression were strongly associated. In both nations, scores for defeat and entrapment were stronger predictors of past suicidal ideation and attempted suicide. Overall, the Iranian respondents had higher scores on the measures of defeat, entrapment, hopelessness and depression, but less often reported prior suicidal ideation. Conclusion: The defeat-entrapment theory of depression and suicidal behavior appears to have validity in both Iran and America.
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/kalantar/35/