Justin Vaughn and Jose Villalobos
Appraising the Leadership Role of Obama's Science, Technology and Health-related Czars.
Abstract: In this paper, we examine the leadership several of the so-called czars in Obamas administration have provided on key scientific issues. These positions include administrators with oversight over general areas like science, technology, and health, as well as more targeted managerial tasks ranging from global climate change and energy issues to environmental issues like Great Lakes restoration and west coast water supply. In so doing, we root our discussion of the leadership contributions and challenges of these key bureaucratic officials in the broader context of White House policy czar proliferation, showing that the Obama Administrations usage of czars, like that of its immediate predecessors, is driven by a growing gap between presidential goals, public expectations, and political feasibility. As a means of coping, presidents tap trusted and experienced individuals to manage inter-agency policymaking and implementation, a strategic personnel decision that carries with it unique challenges, controversies, and consequences. We evaluate the performance of Obamas key science, technology, and health-related czars in terms of the progress they have made in key issues and the level of controversy their leadership has engendered.
The Obama Administration's National Security Strategy in Northeast Asia: Reorganization of Security Lines.
Abstract: The Obama Administrations national security strategy after Iraq War is turning toward Northeast Asia, where are rising variable challenges to screw up regional security environment in danger. Even though Japan has conducted its main taskforce as the U.S. military headquarter in Asia since World War II, it recently required equal balance to upgrade its position in the military relations with the U.S. Japans challenge has motivated the U.S. seriously rethinks its fundamental military strategy in Northeast Asia. In addition, the sinking of a South Korea warship by North Korea would revive China and Russias military strategy to support North Korea in a very suspicious gesture whether North Korea actually attacked. It might be another symptom that China and Russia exploit this case to consider military expansion and take military actions to challenge the U.S. They criticize military drills and reinforcement between South Korea and the U.S. which will increase regional tension. North Korea even declares Sacred War in a reckless response signing additional provocations and China shows military strength with naval exercises off its eastern coast ahead of the U.S. drills with South Korea. Therefore, this paper investigates national security strategy of the U.S. how the Obama Administration should set up new military security line in Northeast Asia and rebuild the relationship with major powers based on regional security. It analyzes each step with detailed methodologies and offer effective strategy that the Obama Administration can take it in policy making process in advance. First, its to move main security line to Korea from Japan. Even after Korean Reunification, the Korean Peninsular would be more strategically important as the center of regional security. Beside direct influence on North Korea issues, South Korea kept on standing on amicable relations with major powers in Northeast Asia. It will effectively undertake a bridge role that the U.S. can control not only North Korea but also China and Russias military ventures in Northeast Asia. Second, its to back up Japan to maintain triangle relationship between the U.S.-South Korea-Japan. It will work out to beat anti-triangle relationship of China-North Korea-Russia. Japan is still counting on the U.S. to deal with North Korea as well as most of regional security issues. Third, its strategically to control China and Russia to reduce regional tension and persuade North Korea to give up nuclear weapons for regional security. The U.S. should offer them national interests through variable routes so that they willingly recognize military expansion stimulates regional tension and intimidate regional security. Fourth, the U.S. has to guarantee consistent and stable security line with major powers in Northeast Asia. Its a strategic paradox that the U.S. with military top position should persuade most of countries to reduce military weapons and control military expansion. But the U.S. should ground strategic tools what is the most important policy for regional security and then the Obama Administration can pursue its national security strategy to achieve regional security in Northeast Asia.
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/justin_vaughn/9/