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Psychometric properties of the Zephyr bioharness device: A systematic review
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
  • Goris Nazari, Western University
  • Pavlos Bobos, Western University
  • Joy C. MacDermid, Western University
  • Kathryn E. Sinden, Lakehead University
  • Julie Richardson, McMaster University, Faculty of Health Sciences
  • Ada Tang, McMaster University, Faculty of Health Sciences
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© 2018 The Author(s). Background: Technological development and improvements in Wearable Physiological Monitoring devices, have facilitated the wireless and continuous field-based monitoring/capturing of physiologic measures in healthy, clinical or athletic populations. These devices have many applications for prevention and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal disorders, assuming reliable and valid data is collected. The purpose of this study was to appraise the quality and synthesize findings from published studies on psychometric properties of heart rate measurements taken with the Zephyr Bioharness device. Methods: We searched the Embase, Medline, PsycInfo, PuMed and Google Scholar databases to identify articles. Articles were appraised for quality using a structured clinical measurement specific appraisal tool. Two raters evaluated the quality and conducted data extraction. We extracted data on the reliability (intra-class correlation coefficients and standard error of measurement) and validity measures (Pearson/Spearman’s correlation coefficients) along with mean differences. Agreement parameters were summarised by the average biases and 95% limits of agreement. Results: A total of ten studies were included: quality ratings ranged from 54 to 92%. The intra-class correlation coefficients reported ranged from 0.85–0.98. The construct validity coefficients compared against gold standard calibrations or other commercially used devices, ranged from 0.74–0.99 and 0.67–0.98 respectively. Zephyr Bioharness agreement error ranged from − 4.81 (under-estimation) to 3.00 (over-estimation) beats per minute, with varying 95% limits of agreement, when compared with gold standard measures. Conclusion: Good to excellent quality evidence from ten studies suggested that the Zephyr Bioharness device can provide reliable and valid measurements of heart rate across multiple contexts, and that it displayed good agreements vs. gold standard comparators – supporting criterion validity.


Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

The article as published is found at:

Nazari, G., Bobos, P., MacDermid, J.C. et al. Psychometric properties of the Zephyr bioharness device: a systematic review. BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil 10, 6 (2018).

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Citation Information
Goris Nazari, Pavlos Bobos, Joy C. MacDermid, Kathryn E. Sinden, et al.. "Psychometric properties of the Zephyr bioharness device: A systematic review" BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation Vol. 10 Iss. 1 (2018)
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