Meteorological variables such as temperature, wind speed, wind directions, and Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) heights have critical implications for air quality simulations. Sensitivity simulations with five different PBL schemes associated with three different Land Surface Models (LSMs) were conducted to examine the impact of meteorological variables on the predicted ozone concentrations using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) version 4.5 with local perspective. Additionally, the nudging analysis for winds was adopted with three different coefficients to improve the wind fields in the complex terrain at 4-km grid resolution. The simulations focus on complex terrain having valley and mountain areas at 4-km grid resolution. The ETA M–Y (Mellor–Yamada) and G–S (Gayno–Seaman) PBL schemes are identified as favorite options and promote O3 formation causing the higher temperature, slower winds, and lower mixing height among sensitivity simulations in the area of study. It is found that PX (Pleim–Xiu) simulation does not always give optimal meteorological model performance. We also note that the PBL scheme plays a more important role in predicting daily maximum 8-h O3 than land surface models. The results of nudging analysis for winds with three different increased coefficients' values (2.5, 4.5, and 6.0 × 10−4 s−1) over seven sensitivity simulations show that the meteorological model performance was enhanced due to improved wind fields, indicating the FDDA nudging analysis can improve model performance considerably at 4-km grid resolution. Specifically, the sensitivity simulations with the coefficient value (6.0 × 10−4) yielded more substantial improvements than with the other values (2.5 and 4.5 × 10−4). Hence, choosing the nudging coefficient of 6.0 × 10−4 s−1 for winds in MM5 may be the best choice to improve wind fields as an input, as well as, better model performance of CMAQ in the complex terrain area. As a result, a finer grid resolution is necessary to evaluate and access of CMAQ results for giving a detailed representation of meteorological and chemical processes in the regulatory modeling. A recommendation of optimal scheme options for simulating meteorological variables in the complex terrain area is made.
- Model performance,
- Planetary boundary layer,
- Land surface model,
- Nudging analysis
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/joshua_fu/7/