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Article
T2 and T3 sympathetic ganglia in the adult human: a cadaver and clinical-radiographic study and its clinical application
Quantitative Health Sciences Publications and Presentations
  • Jorge L. Yarzebski, University of Massachusetts Medical School
  • H. A. Wilkinson
UMMS Affiliation
Department of Quantitative Health Sciences; Meyers Primary Care Institute
Date
9-1-1987
Document Type
Article
Medical Subject Headings
Female; Ganglia, Sympathetic; Humans; Male; Plethysmography; Radio Waves; Sympathectomy
Abstract
The technique of percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) upper thoracic sympathectomy mandates an exact knowledge of the anatomical location of the sympathetic ganglia. Because conflicting descriptions are given in anatomy texts, we examined the T2 and T3 sympathetic ganglia in 48 sympathetic chains in adult cadavers to measure the exact location of the ganglia. Measurements were made relative to their distances (a) dorsal to the ventral surface of the vertebral body and (b) rostral or caudal to the midpoint of the vertebral body. Median locations of T2 and T3 ganglia were 17 to 20 mm dorsal to the ventral surface of the vertebral body and 2 mm rostral to the T1-T2 and T2-T3 vertebral bodies. The sympathetic chains lay lateral to and between the heads of the ribs at these levels. A clinical-radiographic correlation study of the sympatholytic effectiveness of various needle electrode placement sites during sympathectomy confirmed these findings. These data have been used to modify the technique of percutaneous RF sympathectomy.
Rights and Permissions
Citation: Neurosurgery. 1987 Sep;21(3):339-42. Link to article on publisher's site
Related Resources
Link to Article in PubMed
Citation Information
Jorge L. Yarzebski and H. A. Wilkinson. "T2 and T3 sympathetic ganglia in the adult human: a cadaver and clinical-radiographic study and its clinical application" Vol. 21 Iss. 3 (1987) ISSN: 0148-396X (Linking)
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/jorge_yarzebski/4/