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C1q/TNF-related Protein-3 (CTRP3), a Novel Adipokine that Regulates Hepatic Glucose Output
The Journal of Biological Chemistry (2010)
  • Jonathan M. Peterson, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
  • Zhikui Wei, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
  • G. William Wong, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Abstract
Adipose tissue-derived adipokines play important roles in controlling systemic insulin sensitivity and energy balance. Our recent efforts to identify novel metabolic mediators produced by adipose tissue have led to the discovery of a highly conserved family of secreted proteins, designated as C1q/TNF-related proteins 1–10 (CTRP1 to -10). However, physiological functions regulated by CTRPs are largely unknown. Here we provide the first in vivo functional characterization of CTRP3. We show that circulating levels of CTRP3 are inversely correlated with leptin levels; CTRP3 increases with fasting, decreases in diet-induced obese mice with high leptin levels, and increases in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. A modest 3-fold elevation of plasma CTRP3 levels by recombinant protein administration is sufficient to lower glucose levels in normal and insulin-resistant ob/ob mice, without altering insulin or adiponectin levels. The glucose-lowering effect in mice is linked to activation of the Akt signaling pathway in liver and a marked suppression of hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression. Consistent with its effects in mice, CTRP3 acts directly and independently of insulin to regulate gluconeogenesis in cultured hepatocytes. In humans, alternative splicing generates two circulating CTRP3 isoforms differing in size and glycosylation pattern. The two human proteins form hetero-oligomers, an association that does not require interdisulfide bond formation and appears to protect the longer isoform from proteolytic cleavage. Recombinant human CTRP3 also reduces glucose output in hepatocytes by suppressing gluconeogenic enzyme expression. This study provides the first functional evidence linking CTRP3 to hepatic glucose metabolism and establishes CTRP3 as a novel adipokine.
Keywords
  • adipose tissue,
  • adipose tissue metabolism,
  • diabetes,
  • gluconeogenesis,
  • insulin resistance,
  • metabolism,
  • metabolic regulation,
  • obesity,
  • adipokine
Publication Date
December 17, 2010
DOI
10.1074/jbc.M110.180695
Publisher Statement
© 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Author’s may post the final edited PDFs created by the publisher to their own Web sites 12 months after publication. This document was originally published in Journal of Biological Chemistry.
Citation Information
Jonathan M. Peterson, Zhikui Wei and G. William Wong. "C1q/TNF-related Protein-3 (CTRP3), a Novel Adipokine that Regulates Hepatic Glucose Output" The Journal of Biological Chemistry Vol. 285 Iss. 51 (2010) p. 39691 - 39701 ISSN: 1083-351X
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/jonathan-peterson/13/