In 1782, 96 Moravian Indian converts, mostly Munsee Delawares, were systematically massacred at the Gnadenhutten settlement on the Muskingum River in Ohio. After the massacre, they struggled to find a new home in the Great Lakes region. Often finding themselves living in a war zone, the Moravians and the Indians were subject to raids, rumors, and misunderstandings, and in 1792 they made the decision to cross into Canada, where they established a successful settlement on the Thames River in Ontario. Ironically, during the War of 1812, the Battle of the Thames destroyed their settlement, but in 1815 they returned to the south side of the Thames, establishing a new settlement, New Fairfield, which endured, even becoming a place of refuge for other Indians from the United States in 1823.
- GNADENHUTTEN Massacre Gnadenhutten Ohio,
- 1782 INDIANS of North America Wars 1775-1783,
- MORAVIANS INDIANS of North America Missions
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