The past few decades have seen substantial changes in the economic, social, and political realities facing the Canadian labour movement. These changes have disrupted traditional labour-management relationships and created more diversified and fragmented union memberships. Downsizing and the increased use of flexible, part-time work have reduced union membership and created precarious environments for many workers. As well, to achieve economic streamlining and increased competitiveness, employers have become more aggressive in demanding concessions and restructuring. Faced with these realities, unions are striving to improve the services to their members and maintain the gains of past bargaining.
Weststar, J. (2006). Union education, union leadership and union renewal: The role of PEL. In P. Kumar & C. Schenk (Eds.), Paths to Union Renewal: Canadian Experiences (pp. 307-322). Toronto: University of Toronto Press